Yom Kippur, Yom Kippur meaning is the Day of Atonement, is the most important holy day in Judaism. Atonement and penance are the basic themes of the day. This day is observed by the Jews for 25 hours which includes penance, prayer services and fasting. The people are seen spending most of the 25 hours of this day in the Jewish prayer house; synagogue. That’s all yom kippur definition known as.
Yom Kippur Day History 2017 Date in English
Yom Kippur Date
– Friday, September-29-2017
Yom Kippur falls on the 10th day of Tishri, the seventh month of the Jewish calendar, in which many important holidays occur. According to the Gregorian calendar, the day falls in the month of October. The day is the most important day of the whole Jewish year.
The observing this day generally do not visit their work places, they engage themselves in prayer services and penance at the synagogue. One of the Hebrew Scriptures, ‘Torah’ says, ‘the 10th day of Tishri is the Day of Atonement, and is a sacred occasion.’
Yom Kippur History
Yom Kippur dates back to the biblical times when animals were used to transfer sins to. The first animal that was used was a goat, but soon roosters for males and hens for females were used. The sins were transferred from people to the animals by tying a rope to the fowl’s legs and then spinning around the head of the person who was transferring their sins.
It was on one of the Yom Kippur when Egypt and Syria launched a surprise attack against Israel on 6th October, 1973. The Israeli troops were killed in large numbers by the Egyptian and Syrian armed forces. There were many major casualties and almost 2700 people including the Israeli armed people and other civilians were killed.
They even devastated the Suez Canal and the Golan heights of the Israeli territory. The war went on for 6 long days and the two attacking forces had conquered almost whole of the territory and asked Israel to agree the demands made by the Egyptians and Syrian provinces. If they fail to agree, they were threatened to be attacked by the forces.
Israel somehow managed to have a victory over the two Arab attackers but had faced major losses in the form of casualties and many of their people were killed. They won the war at the Sinai, crossing the Suez Canal and were successful in backing off the Egyptian armed forces.
After the victory of Israel, the Egyptian President, Anwar Sadat planned of more diplomatic ways to acquire the Jewish state. Thereafter, in 1975, Egypt and Israel settled on their differences with a mutual agreement, instead of involving their respective military forces.
Yom Kippur Songs
1. Who By Fire (Leonard Cohen · 1974)
2. The Most Unwanted Song (Komar and Melamid · 1997
3. V’nislach – Shehecheyanu (Yisroel Williger · 2010)
4. Ki Hinei Kachomer (Yisroel Williger · 2010)
5. Ashamnu (Benzion Miller · 2004)
Yom Kippur Menu
1. Matzoh Ball Soup
Your dinner’s appetizer: easy. Nothing says Jewish mother like matzoh ball soup. Nothing. Doesn’t matter what the season, or what the holiday, Matzoh Ball Soup almost always makes it onto our menus.
2. Butternut Squash Latkes
Though less traditional than classic potato latkes , this fall version of the potato pancake is a perfect hors d’oevres for the season, and its sweetness works great with Rosh Hashanah’s apples and honey.
3. Noodle Kugel
The cinnamon, sugar, and butter topping gives the top of the kugel a beautiful brown crispiness. You might think this is for dessert (or breakfast), but no: its sweetness is also the perfect complement to a Rosh Hashanah menu.
4. Potato Kugel with Sauteed Shallots
This is a definite on Passover menus, but it’s also great on the high holidays for those poor Jewish gluten-free souls for whom noodles are a no no. Also works as a savory side for those who think Noodle Kugel is a dessert.
5. String Beans with Pickled Shallots and Mustard Dressing
We all need some green in our lives, and these beans round out the offering. Plus, the dressing is nice and sweet, which bodes well for the year to come.
Picking a main is easy: Phoebe’s best brisket comes by way of her Jewish aunt, Jennifer. It’s always the first thing to disappear from the buffet table, no matter what the holiday. Here’s an even better, simpler version.
7. Alex’s Roasted Chicken
Like Alex, this chicken has Greek roots. But in its spirit, it conforms to what’s on our holiday table. If you’re having a party on the smallish side, this makes for a fabulous main course.
8. Sweet and Savory Moroccan Stew
Take your dinner to the Mediterranean with this delicious, easy main. Make it a day in advance if you’ll be rushed on Rosh Hashanah.
9. Apple Cake with Caramel Glaze
Apple cake is a key player at Rosh Hashanah dinner, and this rich, caramel-covered version will be the most lucious thing on the holiday table.
Yom Kippur Movies
1. Kippur (2000)
2. Promised Lands (1974)
3. The Last Winter (1984)
Yom Kippur Facts
Yom Kippur is a Hebrew set of words in which ‘Yom’ means ‘day’ and ‘Kippur’ means ‘to atone’. So in English, Yom Kippur is referred as the Day of Atonement. Rosh Hashanah is the first day of Tishri, whereas Yom Kippur is the seventh day.
These days are inter-related to each other in some manner as on both the days people ask God for forgiveness of sins. Yom Kippur is a Sabbath; a day observed religiously when people do not visit their workplaces and spend the whole day in worshipping in the Temple of Jerusalem, perform prayer services and keep a fast.
People observe a fast for complete 25 hours, which starts from sunset of the day before Yom Kippur until the nightfall of the actual day. ‘Talmud’, another Hebrew Scripture specifies about the traditional customs need to be followed on account of Yom Kippur.
Yom Kippur Origin
The traditions observed for the whole of 25 hours of fast are as below:
No eating or drinking
No wearing leather shoes
No bathing or washing
No using perfumes or lotions and other such things
No maintaining marital relations
The Hebrew Scripture, Mishnah indicates the importance of the number ‘five’ in the Jewish cultures as follows:
In Torah, the word ‘soul’ occurs five times in the Yom Kippur section.
Soul is known by five different names; soul, wind, spirit, living one and unique one.
On the day of Yom Kippur, five prayer services are observed; namely, Maariv, Shacharis, Mussaf, Mincha and Neilah. On the other days, only three prayer services take place.
Kohen Gadol, the most important High Priest of the Holy Temple of Jerusalem had rinsed himself in the ritual bath; Mikveh, five times on Yom Kippur.
On the days other than Yom Kippur, only three prayer services take place; Maariv, Shacharit and Mincha. Maariv is an Evening Prayer; Shacharit is the Morning Prayer and Mincha, the prayer service taking place in the afternoon. On Yom Kippur along with these three prayer services, additional two prayer services, Mussaf and Neilah are observed.
Mussaf is an additional prayer service to Shacharit and Neilah is the closing prayer service. These prayer services also include some private as well as public confessions of sins, called Vidui, along with a unique prayer dedicated to the special Yom Kippur service of the Kohen Gadol, who was the High Priest in the Holy Temple in Jerusalem.
The day prior to Yom Kippur is known as Erev Yom Kippur, where Erev means ‘Eve’. So Erev Yom Kippur means ‘the eve of the day of atonement’. This day is the ninth day of the Hebrew month Tishri. The day observes an additional prayer service, along with some rituals performed by the Jews.
This is then followed by some large festive meals that generally are arranged in the afternoon prayer, Mincha, of the Erev Yom Kippur:
A traditional outfit followed by the Jews on this day is wearing white clothing which indicates one’s purity. The white clothing is known as ‘Kittel’. The Jewish men have the traditional bath, Mikveh prior to the day of Yom Kippur. In the traditional Hebrew sculptures, it is mentioned that in order to apologize to God, one must pray, repent and do charity.